The first university founded in the Netherlands was at Louvain (1425). After the Revolt against Spain, universities were also founded in the northern provinces: Leiden in Holland (1575), Franeker in Frisia (1585; liquidated in 1811), Groningen (1614), Utrecht (1636), and Harderwijk in Gelderland (1647; liquidated in 1812). New universities were thereafter founded in Amsterdam (1876; and in 1880, a CalvinisticFree University), Nijmegen(1923, Roman Catholic), and Maastricht (1975). Polytechnics, agricul tural, and business schools were founded in Delft, Eindhoven, En schede, Wageningen, Rotterdam, and Tilburg, acquiring the status of university in the 1970s and 1980s. Protestant theological univer sities are located in Kampen and Apeldoorn, and Utrecht houses a Catholic university and a university for humanist studies. Nyenrode Business University (Breukelen, Utrecht) is a private institution. The Open University (with its main office in Heerlen, Limburg) was founded in 1984 for home study by people who are interested in scientific education, no matter what their previous training is. Famous scholars have taught at the Dutch universities, which were also fre quented by foreign students, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries and again recently.
   Legislation on higher education has moved since 1970 from “democratization” to bureaucratization. The most recent reorganiza tion has a strong authoritarian taste. Professors, staff members, and students have only an advisory role in academic policymaking and implementation on the level of the university and the faculty. The Dutch universities are now employers of about 22,000 academic per sonnel and the same number of technical and administrative staff members; they have about 207,000 students enrolled.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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